Read The Four Books of Architecture Online by Andrea Palladio

DOVER BOOKS ON ARCHITECTURE

NEW YORK’S FABULOUS LUXURY APARTMENTS: WITH ORIGINAL FLOOR PLANS FROM THE DAKOTA, RIVER HOUSE, OLYMPIC TOWER AND OTHER GREAT BUILDINGS, Andrew Alpern. (0-486-25318-X)

VITRUVIUS BRITANNICUS: SECOND SERIES, J. Badeslade, J. Rocque, John Woolfe and James Gandon. (0-486-46890-9)

BARBER’S TURN-OF-THE-CENTURY HOUSES : ELEVATIONS AND FLOOR PLANS, George F. Barber & Co. (0-486-46527-6)

THE AMERICAN BUILDER’S COMPANION, Asher Benjamin. (0-486-22236-5)

VICTORIAN WOODEN AND BRICK HOUSES WITH DETAILS, A. J. Bicknell & Co. (0-486-45103-8)

BICKNELL’S VICTORIAN BUILDINGS, A. J. Bicknell & Co. (0-486-23904-7)

VICTORIAN WOODTURNINGS AND WOODWORK, Blumer & Kuhn Stair Co. (0-486-45114-3)

OLD MEXICO: AN ARCHITECTURAL PILGRIMAGE, Alfred C. Bossom. (0-486-43638-1)

THE GARGOYLE BOOK: 572 EXAMPLES FROM GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, Lester Burbank Bridaham. (0-486-44754-5)

100 SMALL HOUSES OF THE THIRTIES, Brown-Blodgett Company. (0-486-44131-8)

BEAUTIFUL BUNGALOWS OF THE TWENTIES, Building Age Publishing Corporation. (0-486-43193-2)

VITRUVIUS BRITANNICUS: THE CLASSIC OF EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY BRITISH ARCHITECTURE, Colen Campbell. (0-486-44799-5)

ELEGANT SMALL HOMES OF THE TWENTIES: 99 DESIGNS FROM A COMPETITION, Chicago Tribune. (0-486-46910-7)

1000 TURN-OF-THE-CENTURY HOUSES: WITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND FLOOR PLANS, Herbert C. Chivers. (0-486-45596-3)

VICTORIAN HOUSE DESIGNS IN AUTHENTIC FULL COLOR: 75 PLATES FROM THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN–ARCHITECTS AND BUILDERS EDITION, 1885-1894, Edited by Blanche Cirker. (0-486-29438-2)

COUNTRY AND SUBURBAN HOUSES OF THE TWENTIES: WITH PHOTOGRAPHS AND FLOOR PLANS, Edited by Bernard Wells Close. (0-486-43631-4)

AMERICAN COUNTRY HOUSES OF THE THIRTIES: WITH PHOTOGRAPHS AND FLOOR PLANS, Lewis A. Coffin. (0-486-45592-0)

THE POWER OF BUILDINGS, 1920-1950: A MASTER DRAFTSMAN’S RECORD, Hugh Ferriss. (0-486-46920-4)

FLAGG’S SMALL HOUSES: THEIR ECONOMIC DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, 1922, Ernest Flagg. (0-486-45197-6)

CLASSIC MODERN HOMES OF THE THIRTIES: 64 DESIGNS BY NEUTRA, GROPIUS, BREUER, STONE AND OTHERS, James Ford and Katherine Morrow Ford. (0-486-25927-7)

SMALL HOUSES OF THE FORTIES: WITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND FLOOR PLANS, Harold E. Group. (0-486-45598-X)

101 CLASSIC HOMES OF THE TWENTIES: FLOOR PLANS AND PHOTOGRAPHS, Harris, McHenry & Baker Co. (0-486-40731-4)

AUTHENTIC VICTORIAN VILLAS AND COTTAGES: OVER 100 DESIGNS WITH ELEVATIONS AND FLOOR PLANS, Isaac Hobbs. (0-486-44351-5)

ELEGANT COUNTRY AND SUBURBAN HOUSES OF THE TWENTIES, Edited by Charles S. Keefe. (0-486-44216-0)

100 TURN-OF-THE-CENTURY BRICK BUNGALOWS WITH FLOOR PLANS, Rogers & Manson. (0-486-28119-1)

THE ART DECO STYLE, Edited by Theodore Menten. (0-486-22824-X)

FLORIDA ARCHITECTURE OF ADDISON MIZNER, Addison Mizner. (0-486-27327-X)

JAPANESE HOMES AND THEIR SURROUNDINGS, Edward S. Morse. (0-486-20746-3)

124 DISTINCTIVE HOUSE DESIGNS AND FLOOR PLANS, 1929, National Building Publications. (0-486-42331-X)

SMALLER HOUSES OF THE 1920s: 55 EXAMPLES, Ethel B. Power. (0-486-46049-5)

THE MOST POPULAR HOMES OF THE TWENTIES, William A. Radford. With a New Introduction by Daniel D. Reiff. (0-486-47028-8)

EARLY VICTORIAN HOUSE DESIGNS, William H. Ranlett. (0-486-44863-0)

HENRY HOBSON RICHARDSON AND His WORKS, Mariana Griswold Van Rensselaer. (0-486-22320-5)

The Four Books of Architecture

Andrea Palladio

COPYRIGHT © 1965 BY DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC.

All rights reserved.

This Dover edition, first published in 1965, is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the work originally published by Isaac Ware in 1738, to which has been added a new Introduction written especially for this edition by Adolf K. Placzek.

DOVER Pictorial Archive SERIES

This book belongs to the Dover Pictorial Archive Series. You may use the designs and illustrations for graphics and crafts applications, free and without special permission, provided that you include no more than ten in the same publication or project. (For permission for additional use, please write to Dover Publications, Inc., 31 East 2nd Street, Mineola, N.Y. 11501.)

However, republication or reproduction of any illustration by any other graphic service whether it be in a book or in any other design resource is strictly prohibited.

International Standard Book Number

9780486132921

ISBN-10: 0-486-21308-0

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 64-18862

Manufactured in the United States by Courier Corporation

21308025

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Table of Contents

DOVER BOOKS ON ARCHITECTURE

Title Page

Copyright Page

Introduction to Dover Edition

Dedication

THE NAMES OF THE SUBSCRIBERS.

REFERENCES to ſuch Places of the AUTHOR, where his Terms of Art are by himſelf beſt explained, alphabetically diſpoſed.

ERRATA.

ADVERTISEMENT.

THE AUTHOR’S PREFACE – TO THE READER.

THE FIRST BOOK OF Andrea Palladio’s ARCHITECTURE.

CHAPTER I. – Of the ſeveral particulars that ought to be conſider’d and prepar’d before we begin to build.

CHAP. II. – OF TIMBER.

CHAP. III. – OF STONES.

CHAP. IV. – OF SAND.

CHAP. V. – Of LIME, and of the method of working it into mortar.

CHAP. VI. – OF METALS.

CHAP. VII. – Of the qualities of the ground where foundations ought to be laid.

CHAP. VIII. – Of foundations.

CHAP. IX. – Of the ſeveral ſorts of walls.

CHAP. X. – Of the method obſerved by the antients in erecting ſtone edifices.

CHAP. XI. – Of the diminution of walls, and of their ſeveral parts.

CHAP. XII. – Of the five orders made uſe of by the antients.

CHAP. XIII. – Of the ſwelling and diminution of columns, and of the intercolumniations and pilaſters.

CHAP. XIV. – Of the TUSCAN ORDER.

CHAP. XV. – Oƒ the DORICK ORDER.

CHAP. XVI. – Of the IONICK ORDER.

CHAP. XVII. – Of the CORINTHIAN ORDER.

CHAP. XVIII. – Of the COMPOSITE ORDER.

CHAP. XIX. – Of PEDESTALS.

CHAP. XX. – Of ABUSES.

CHAP. XXI. – Of the loggia’s, entries, halls, rooms, and of their form.

CHAP. XXII. – Of pavements and cielings.

CHAP. XXIII. – Of the height of the rooms.

CHAP. XXIV. – Of the ſeveral manners of vaults.

CHAP. XXV. – Of the dimenſions of the doors and windows.

CHAP. XXVI. – Of the ornaments of doors and windows.

CHAP. XXVII. – Of CHIMNEYS.

CHAP. XXVIII. – Of ſtairs, and the various kinds of them; and of the number and ſize of the ſteps.

CHAP. XXIX. – Of ROOFS.

THE SECOND BOOK OF Andrea Palladio’s ARCHITECTURE.

CHAPTER I. – Of the decorum or conveniency that ought to be obſerved in private fabrics.

CHAP. II. – Of the compartment or disposition of rooms, and of other places.

CHAP. III. – Of the designs of town-houſes.

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CHAP. IV. – Of the TUSCAN ATRIO, or porch.

CHAP. V. – Of the ATRIO with four columns.

CHAP. VI. – Of the CORINTHIAN ATRIO.

CHAP. VII. – Of the ATRIO TESTUGGINATO, and of the private houſes of the antient Romans.

CHAP. VIII. – Of the HALLS with four columns.

CHAP. IX. – Of CORINTHIAN HALLS.

CHAP. X. – Of EGYPTIAN HALLS.

CHAP. XI. – Of the PRIVATE HOUSES of the Greeks.

CHAP. XII. – Of the SITE to be choſen for the fabricks of VILLA’S.

CHAP. XIII. – Of the compartment or diſposition of the VILLA’S.

CHAP. XIV. – Of the DESIGNS of the country-houses belonging to ſome noble Venetians.

CHAP. XV. – Of the DESIGNS of the VILLA’s belonging to some gentlemen of the TERRA FIRMA.

CHAP. XVI. – Of the VILLA’S of the antients.

CHAP. XVII. – Of ſome INVENTIONS, according to divers ſituations.

THE THIRD BOOK OF Andrea Palladio’s ARCHITECTURE.

The PREFACE to the READER.

CHAPTER I. – Of ROADS.

CHAP. II. – Of the COMPARTMENT of ways within the cities.

CHAP. III. – Of the Ways without the city.

CHAP. IV. – Of what ought to be obſerved in the building of BRIDGES, and of the ſite that ought to be choſen.

CHAP. V. – Of WOODEN BRIDGES, and of the advertencies which ought to be had in the building of them.

CHAP. VI. – Of the BRIDGE directed by JULIUS CÆSAR over the Rhine.

CHAP. VII. – Of the BRIDGE of CISMONE.

CHAP. VIII. – Of three other INVENTIONS, according to which wooden bridges may be made, without fixing any poſts in the water.

CHAP. IX. – Of the bridge of BASSANO.

CHAP. X. – Of STONE BRIDGES, and what ought to be obſerved in the building of them.

CHAP. XI. – Of ſome celebrated BRIDGES built by the antients, and of the deſigns of the bridge of RIMINO.

CHAP. XII. – Of the BRIDGE of Vicenza, that is over the Bacchiglione.

CHAP. XIII. – Of a STONE BRIDGE of my invention.

CHAP. XIV. – Of another BRIDGE of my invention.

CHAP. XV. – Of the BRIDGE of Vicenza, that is upon the Rerone.

CHAP. XVI. – Of the PIAZZE, and of the edifices that are made round them.

CHAP. XVII. – Of the PIAZZE of the Greeks.

CHAP. XVIII. – Of the PIAZZE of the Romans.

CHAP. XIX. – Of the antient BASILICA’S.

CHAP. XX. – Of the BASILICA’S of our times, and of the deſigns of that of Venice.

CHAP. XXI. – Of the PALESTRA’S and of the XYSTI of the Greeks.

THE FOURTH BOOK OF Andrea Palladio’s ARCHITECTURE.

The PREFACE to the READER.

CHAPTER I. – Of the SITE that ought to be choſen for the building of temples.

CHAP. II. – Of the forms of TEMPLES, and of the decorum to be obſerved in them.

CHAP. III. – Of the aſpects of TEMPLES.

CHAP. IV. – Of the five kinds of TEMPLES.

CHAP. V. – Of the Compartments of TEMPLES.

CHAP. VI. – Of the deſigns of ſome ancient TEMPLES that are at Rome ; and, firſt, of that of PEACE.

CHAP. VII. – Of the temple of MARS, the Avenger.

CHAP. VIII. – Of the temple of NERVA TRAJANUS.

CHAP. IX. – Of the temple of ANTONINUS and of FAUSTINA.

CHAP. X. – Of the temple of the SUN and of the MOON.

CHAP. XI. – Of the temple vulgarly called the GALLUCE.

CHAP. XII. – Of the temple of JUPITER.

CHAP. XIII. – Of the temple of FORTUNA VIRILIS.

CHAP. XIV. – Of the temple of VESTA.

CHAP. XV. – Of the temple of MARS.

CHAP. XVI. – Of the Baptiſterium of CONSTANTINE.

CHAP. XVII. – Of the temple of BRAMANTE.

CHAP. XVIII. – Of the temple of JUPITER STATOR.

CHAP. XIX. – Of the temple of JUPITER, the Thunderer.

CHAP. XX. – Of the PANTHEON, now called the Ritonda.

CHAP. XX. – Of the DESIGNS of ſome temples that are out of Rome, in Italy ; and, in the firſt place, of the temple of BACCHUS.

CHAP. XXII. – Of the TEMPLE whoſe veſtigia are to be ſeen near the church of Santo SEBASTIANO, upon the Via Appia.

CHAP. XXIII. – Of the temple of VESTA.

CHAP. XXIV. – Of the temple of CASTOR and POLLUX.

CHAP. XXV. – Of the temple that is below Trevi.

CHAP. XXVI. – Of the temple of SCISI.

CHAP. XXVII. – Of the deſigns of ſome temples that are out of Italy ; and, firſt, of the two temples of POLA.

CHAP. XXVIII. – Of two temples of NISMES; and, firſt, of that which is called La Maiſon Quaree.

CHAP. XXIX. – Of the other temple of NISMES.

CHAP. XXX. – Of two other temples in Rome; and, firſt, of that of CONCORD.

CHAP. XXXI. – Of the temple of NEPTUNE.

Introduction to Dover Edition

It can be safely said that Andrea Palladio ranks not only among the most famous, but also among the most influential architects of all time. However, when we turn to his life and to his person, we find that very little of either the man or of his life is known. He was born in Padua in 1508, of humble family, but grew up in Vicenza. He was originally trained as a sculptor (a not unusual thing for Renaissance architects) and as a stone mason. In Count Giangiorgio Trissino he found a generous patron, who took him to Rome in 1541. It was there that his eyes were opened to the full glory of classic architecture and that he turned to the study of ancient buildings. He traveled widely in Italy, but—with the possible exception of Nîmes—never outside. He returned to Rome several times, but he did not become connected with the greatest architectural task of his age, the rebuilding of Saint Peter’s. Most of his life he spent in Vicenza, where he died in 1580. Palladio was a superb architect, but he was not an innovator like Brunelleschi or Michelangelo. He built churches, town and country houses, public buildings and bridges in Venice and on the Venetian mainland and in and around Vicenza. Many of these buildings were built of cheap material (brick faced with stucco instead of stone for which the designs would have called) and are therefore now in rather poor condition. Among his main works are the churches of S. Giorgio Maggiore and of Il Redentore in Venice, the Villa Capra near Vicenza, the Palazzi Valmarana, Chiericati and Thiene, and the exterior of the Basilica (Town Hall), all in Vicenza. His last great work was the Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza, which his pupil Vincenzo Scamozzi finished after his death. It contains a permanent stage built in perspective—a most remarkable creation.

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The question immediately arises: why this enormous fame and influence? For it was not only his buildings that were imitated again and again, both in their pure plans and elevations and in their details; also his writings, above all the Four Books of Architecture, have had the most profound and widespread impact. This book has been translated into every major European language, issued and reissued time after time and has remained a basic book for every architectural library. Why this fame and influence? The answer, in all likelihood, lies in the fact that Andrea Palladio was more than an interpreter of a particular style or a skillful publicist for his own works; that he was—and remains—the spokesman for the belief in valid rules, in immutable canons, for the belief that there is a correct, a right way to design. One can go even further and call him a spokesman for absolute standards. He is the only architect after whom an architectural idiom is named: Palladianism. Nobody speaks of Brunelleschism, Bramantism, or, in more recent examples, of Wright-ism or Le Corbusier-ism. Miesian would be a possible term, and in a way for the same reason—because of the striving for a perfect, a valid form inherent in it. In this sense, Mies van der Rohe himself could be labeled a Neo-Palladian.

Palladianism is the conviction, first of all, that a universally applicable vocabulary of architectural forms is both desirable and possible; secondly, that such a vocabulary had been developed by the ancient Romans (Palladio’s knowledge of Greek architecture was scant), and thirdly, that a careful study and judicious use of these forms will result in Beauty. This Beauty, according to the Palladians, is therefore not only derived from ideal forms and their harmony; it is also rooted in historical correctness; and it includes the most practical, reasonable solution of the specific problem on hand. Much of Palladio’s thought is based on Leon Battista Alberti’s De Re Aedificatoria, the first of the great architectural treatises of the Renaissance (published in 1485), but even more closely on the writings of a Roman architect of the Augustan age, Vitruvius, which were issued in print for the first time in 1486. This is the only architectural book preserved from the Roman and Greek world, and was, as such, for Palladio and his contemporaries the authoritative voice of Antiquity. Of course Palladio was deeply impressed by the Roman remains themselves. He studied them thoroughly and even published the first scholarly guide book to classical Rome (Le Antichità di Roma, 1554), a little volume much used in the next two centuries.

Palladio’s main work, however, and the one on which much of his fame and of the durability of Palladianism rests, is I Quattro Libri dell’Architettura, as the Four Books of Architecture are called in the original. It was first published in Venice in 1570, and proved immediately to be a book of the greatest importance. A second edition followed in 1581, a year after the author’s death, another in 1601, and so on in remarkable succession. The effect of this book on the major European countries—France, the Netherlands and Germany above all—where the Renaissance developed more slowly, was equally profound. In England it was the great Inigo Jones (1573–1652) who first imported Palladianism. During his visit to Italy in 1614 he not only acquired a number of original drawings by Palladio from the latter’s pupil Scamozzi, but also a copy of the Quattro Libri, which he studied most carefully and richly annotated. This annotated copy is preserved at Worcester College, Oxford, and it can be called a book in which literally two civilizations meet. The Banqueting House at Whitehall (1619–1622), the Queen’s House in Greenwich (1616–1635) and other buildings are the result of this meeting; with them the Italian High Renaissance finally reached England.

The first complete English translation of I Quattro Libri was not published until 1715, by an enterprising Venetian architect, Giacomo Leoni, who had settled in London. In the following years Palladianism became the ruling style in England. The hegemony of one style or taste at a given time is of course the result of concurring factors; but if a single individual can be credited (or blamed, as the position may be), then Richard Boyle, third Earl of Burlington (1695–1753) is the man to whom England owes the long rule of strict Palladianism in the eighteenth century—and, more indirectly, America its own brand of the same style. An art patron of vast influence and wealth, he was also an architect in his own right, and a precise and demanding scholar. The engravings in Leoni’s edition of Palladio had not been faithful to the original: there had been decorative embellishments in the Baroque spirit, additions, and even misinterpretations of the original design intent. This, most probably on Burlington’s suggestion, was to be remedied by a faithful and accurate reproduction of the original plates, and an exact translation of the text. The man to accomplish this was Isaac Ware (birthdate unknown, d. 1766), who was himself an architectural writer, a fairly prominent architect of his day, and a follower of Burlington. The edition came out in 1738 and can certainly be considered a successful accomplishment. Indeed the accuracy of the reproductions is amazing. In spite of this, it has remained the less accessible of the two variants, partly because Leoni was first on the scene, was more ambitious in his publishing ventures and persisted through two more English editions. In fact, Ware’s faithful edition became somewhat of a rarity; and it is for this reason, too, that the present reissue is of the greatest value. It will make a work available to the general public which has long been elusive and inaccessible, yet can still be considered essential to the study of architectural forms. And while the short and factual text is obviously of less importance than the plates, the good English translation deserves a special mention. To those who do not read Italian, it will convey something of the clarity and restraint of Palladio’s own style, besides containing the necessary key to the structures and forms he chose to illustrate.

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The work, as is evident from the title, is divided into four parts (books):

The First Book is concerned with building materials, building techniques, and most of all with that great preoccupation of the Renaissance architect, the five orders of architecture (Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Composite), as they are expressed in columns, pilasters and the architraves resting on them. Palladio then turns briefly to the other parts of a classic building (stairs, chimneys, roofs, etc.).

The Second Book treats of private houses on a grand scale. Apart from a few Roman reconstructions, this book shows Palladio’s own designs—the many villas on the Venetian mainland and in and around Vicenza, among them the most famous of all, the Villa Capra (La Rotonda as it is sometimes called; plate 13).

The Third Book deals with streets, piazzas, bridges and basilicas (a basilica was originally not a religious building, but a Roman hall of justice). Again, Palladio reproduces Roman works, including a reconstruction of Julius Caesar’s Rhine bridge, and then turns to his own designs. Plate 19 shows the famous arcades of the Basilica in Vicenza, from which the much imitated Palladian motif derives.

The Fourth Book deals with Roman temples; particularly noteworthy are the beautiful drawings of the Pantheon (plates 51–60). Plates 44–45 show Bramante’s Tempietto in S. Pietro Montorio. This is the only building in the book which is not either by Palladio himself or of Roman origin. The remarks on p. 97 (chapter XVII) throw a bright light on Palladio’s position towards his Renaissance precursors and contemporaries.

A modern biography of Palladio in English is still lacking. For the most illuminating analysis of Palladio’s design ideas, particularly his use of mathematical proportions, the reader is referred to Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism (3rd rev. ed., 1962) by Rudolf Wittkower, to whom we are indebted for much of our present knowledge of sixteenth-century as well as eighteenth-century Palladianism.

1964

ADOLF K. PLACZEK

Avery Library

Columbia University

To the Right Honourable

RICHARD

Earl of BURLINGTON, &c.

MY LORD,

YOUR giving me free acceſs to Your ſtudy, wherein many of the original drawings of PALLADIO, beſides thoſe which compoſe this work, are preſerved, and taking upon You the trouble of reviſing the tranſlation, and correcting it with Your own hands, are ſuch inſtances of Your love to arts, and of Your friendſhip to me, that I cannot too publickly return YOUR LORDSHIP thanks for favours that ſurpaſs all acknowledgment.

YOUR LORDSHIP need not be informed of what importance it is to ſuch who make architecture their ſtudy to have the works of our excellent author put into their hands truly genuine. Nor can I doubt but this performance will be acceptable to the publick, ſince it has had the good fortune to meet with YOUR LORDSHIP’S approbation: To obtain which, will always be the chief ambition of

YOUR LORDSHIP’S

Most Obedient Humble Servant,

Iſaac Ware.

THE NAMES OF THE SUBSCRIBERS.

A

RIGHT Honourable the Earl of Albemarle.

Honourable Richard Arundell, E∫q; Richard Aymor, E∫q;

ſohn Aiſleby, E∫q;

William Prichard Aſhurſt, E∫q;

John Armſtrong, E∫q;

William Archer, E∫q;

Mr. William Armſtrong.

Mr. Nathanael Adams.

Mr. Thomas Alliſon.

Mr. John Andrews.

B

Right Honourable the Earl of Burlington.

Right Honourable Lord Viſcount Boyne.

Sir Henry Bedingfield.

Honourable Benjamin Bathurſt, E∫q;

Hugh Bethel, E∫q;

William Burton, E∫q;

George Bowes, E∫q;

Edmund Brampſton, E∫q;

William Briſtow, E∫q;

Thomas Bryan, E∫q;

—————Bateman, E∫q;

Richard Barlow, E∫q;

The Reverend Dr. Bland, Dean of Durham.

Mr. William Blakeſley.

Mr. John Barnard.

Mr.————Burrat.

Mr. Matthew Brettingham.

Mr. John Boſſon.

Mr. John Barlow.

Mr. Edward Baylis.

Mr. Holden Bowker.

Mr. Edward Bilcliffe.

Mr. Samuel Breach.

Mr. John Burrough.

Mr. William Bates.

Mr. Robert Brown.

C

Right Honourable the Earl of Carliſle.

Right Honourable the Earl of Cardigan.

Right Honourable the Earl of Cheſterfield.

Right Honourable Earl Cowper.

Right Honourable Earl Cholmondeley Right Honourable Lord Cornwallis.

Right Honourable Lord Chewton Sir Thomas Chudley, Bart.

Sir Robert Corbet, Bart.

Thomas Cowſlad, E∫q;

Anthony Chute, E∫q;

Coke, E∫q;

John Campbell, E∫q;

Richard Chandler, E∫q.

Richard Cliffe, E∫q;

James Caltorpe, E∫q;

Martin Clare, M. A. and F. R. S. Mrs. Chandler.

Mr. Cavendiſh.

Mr. Thomas Carter.

Mr. Abraham Curtis.

Mr. Charles Carne

Mr. John Collyer.

Mr.————Cuſhnie.

Mr. George Chamberlaine.

Mr. Charles Clay.

Mr. Thomas Clark.

D

Right Honourable Earl of Derby.

Right Honourable Earl of Dyſert.

Right Honourable Sir Conyers Darcy.

Honourable General James Dormer.

Mr. George Devall.

Mr. John Davis.

Mr. William Davis.

Mr. George Dalby.

E

Sir John Evelyn, Bart.

Honourable Richard Edgcumbe, Eʃq;

Robert Eyre, Eʃq;

James Eckerſall, Eʃq;

Mr. George Evans.

Mr.————Eiſler.

Mr. Thomas Elkins.

Mr. Thomas Edwards. Mr. Richard Edwards.

F

Right Honourable the Earl Fitzwilliams.

Right Honourable the Lord Viʃcount Fauconberg.

Honourable Sir Thomas Frankland.

Honourable Sir Andrew Fountaine.

Honourable Henry Fox, Eʃq;

Charles Fleetwood, Eʃq;

Mr. Henry Flitcroft.

Mr. Thomas Fuller.

Mr. Elias Ferris.

Mr. Richard Ford.

Mr. Edward Fitzwater.

Mr. Devereux Fox.

Mr. Richard Fortnam.

Mr. John Ford.

G

Right Honourable Lord Viʃcount Gallway.

Sir John Goodrick.

Philips Glower, Eʃq;

Roger Gale, Eʃq;

George Gray, Eʃq;

Weſtby Gill, Eʃq;

Mr. John Goodchild.

Mr. Robert Goodchild.

Mr. William Gray.

Mr. Thomas Gray.

Mr. Edward Gray.

Mr. James Gume.

Mr. Thomas Gladwin.

Mr.————Gough.

Mr. John Green.

H

Right Honourable Lord Harrington.

Honourable

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